Thursday, 6 December 2012

OUGD501 // Lecture 8 // Creative Rhetorics

Objectives :
Clarify how creativity is talked about
Enable us to talk with precision about creativity
Develop practice; techniques/definitions
Potentially expand discipline

Threads ...  

Introduction The blank sheet project
Genealogy  - a history of the term creativity
Aesthetics - philosophy of creativity 
Education -  facilitating creativity 
Contemporary global - discourses and practices 

‘Different artists often have quite divergent conceptions of what they are doing’
Harrison-Barbet, 1990, p287

D&AD initiative. Interviewing creatives asking them about there creative process and there work in general.  

One way to talk about creativity. 
Danced for a movie as an actor - The joy of acting and the experience is the flow.

What makes them tick ?
How they have achieved what they have achieved ? 

Be stupid ... 
 'Whats your favorite pair of jeans .. the next one" 
" See things how they can be" - Be Stupid 
"Stupid people are the people who see how things can be." 

How he talks about creativity ...

Practice-based beginning (School of Fashion) studio-pedagogy (supports creativity) Arts & Crafts/Bauhaus  

Facilitating creativity  

Best idea – always next creativity 'dynamic'  George Dickie (1971) art is beyond definition constantly changing (history of aesthetics)
"The next one" gives the idea that creativity is always moving and is dynamic.  
Be Stupid – using heart not head  expressionist theory – linked to Romanticism idea that creativity is a knowledge-obtaining activity opposition to rational sciences
Very different to rational subjects like science ! You could look at Rosso as a romantic genius.  
Rosso  Romantic Genius?  
Work in teams – creative process Diesel – collaborative
Collaborative which is essential

practised based beginning at school of fashion. 
creativity is dynamic - best idea is always the next one, not the first
working in teams - creative process at diesel is collaborative - essential to them.

Plato’s  (427 BC - 346 BC ) problem with creativity 
Republic – ideal society (critique of democracy) 
Metaphysics – forms
Physical world mimics the real
Art imitates an imitation
Art mimics the sensory world 
Creativity merely a technical skill - techne  (GK)
Denied creativity's knowledge-producing capability
Dichotomy physical not mental activity 

there is another world which revolves after our world that is more perfect than the real world.
art mimics a second world - it is a technical skill - creativity knowledge is null

Gombrich (1950) The popular view is that Western civilization begins Ancient Greeks
Bernal (1991) argues Classical civilization has deep roots in Afroasiatic cultures - history  suppressed since 18c. 
Classical Greeks, did not see their philosophy, as original, but derived from the East and Egypt.

histories of art - western civilisation begins with ancient greeks.

figure on left from the attaic period - not very real - the figure isnt a real life formation
figure on right - Hellenistic - more of a real life formation within the figure itself.

Roman Art (315 AD) Constantine 
Republic period realism (after Gks) Imperial period stylized
Art followed spirit of Gks
Suggesting Greeks reached some sort of apex.
Sentiment found in histories of art Gombrich 

Copying greeks. They believed that the greeks created perfect art and there was no better so all there was to do was study the greek ways. 

Academic talk about creativity 

Complex and dynamic concept
Subjects of history of art and aesthetics 
Evidenced in Banaji et al (2006) Nine ‘rhetorics of creativity' contemporary review of the literature  

9 different ways about talking about creativity : 

Creative genius 
Democratic & political creativity
Ubiquitous creativity
Creativity for social good
Creativity as economic imperative 
Play and creativity
Creativity and cognition 
The creative affordances of technology 
The creative classroom 

Romantic Genius 

Kant wrote about artistic movement
18c literary and visual 
Redefined the role of the artist
Creative genius


Movement changed ideas and language about art & creativity
Rejecting Platonic theory, Nietzsche and Schopenhauer (German philosophers) posited art as the most important knowledge-generating discipline.

Romanticism redefined the status of the artist
Valued the originality of work, in terms of reflecting a subjective vision of artist
Artist a creator – not imitator
Artist should stand aside from rules
The artist is rule breaker & definer

Through creating, artists create new rules 
Own master & owner of the discipline
Romantic model of the artist empowers the artist and creativity
Through creativity the borders and boundaries of art itself are visualised and transcended
Expanding the discipline

Hegarty talks about creativity 

He talks about working collaboratively - Creativity is an individual vision although working collaboratively is good..  
 This reflects the idea of the romantic genius. 

The Creative Classroom
The Survival of Creativity (2000)
Traces history of state-funded Art & Design Education.
First Academies of Art in Italy 14c
Classical rules perspective, orders of architecture etc.
Scholarly activity ‘fine’
16c French Academy & Atelier
19c British Art Schools, Arts & Craft: LCA

"Creative Advertising and Online Collaborative Creativity"

Future Everything 2012

Abundance research new media profound change on creatives & citizens. 
‘people can collaborate…across networks to create…or participate in social revolutions’ 

Art and Design education changed:
Brown (2012) digital technology, event horizon 
Epistemological shift. 
Global community created the cloud single body of knowledge.
Ownership of content has changed  implications A & D Education 
One- to –many outmoded
Inverted many-to-one

all the knowledge which we can learn within any institute can be learnt from using online resources.

Online extension studio
Mimics the professional studio in its online form and creative collaborations
Year tutor; curriculum development

Extension of the studio - extension of a professional studio. 

Art & copy teams (collaborative) concurrent practice-based orthodox UK Art Schools 50s.
For some, new media prompting changes at the heart of the discipline; models of creativity -evidence teams are expanding in volume & online
Facilitating students working online and collaboratively facilitates a type of creativity of value to industry Bennett (2003)
Empowers learner online flattening/equalising effect traditional f2f roles tutor/learner Master/apprentice.  
Study explores such claims

collaborations have been going on for a long time
evidence that working collaborative and online is beneficial to the learner and shows that this is useful within the working professional environment

Primary Sources
49 completed/valid questionnaires 
32 learners and 1 tutor – ascertain impact
16 Professionals  - 7 top ten UK agencies

survey which was sent out about the idea of the estudio and online working.

75% (P) agreed that that new media has given rise to a new type of collaborative creativity.
81% (P) agreed that discussion forums and chat rooms are supportive to idea generation.
87% (L) and 93% (P) agreed that working online in teams was a valuable skill for undergraduate creatives to practice. 

Further Findings
Majority of learners value practising OCC early stages of the creative cycle (PA & R ) and less in the active (I).
When asked Do you agree that the discussion forums and chat rooms are appropriate spaces for supporting ideation? 49% (L) agreed 81% (P).
32% discrepancy between how OCC is valued among (L) and (P) significant.
65% (L) agreed there was a link between online conversation and flow compared 100% (P).

(3) Ubiquitous creativity 
Communities of Practice

Little c Creativity Banaji (2006)

Creativity as a basic skill to find solutions to problems in 21st life, being resourceful, flexible – contributing to society. 
 Society (crowd)  made up of online Communities of Practice VCOP Group(s) of people, which have an interest in the same topic and are engaged in an activity of sharing their opinions on this topic (creating the cloud).
Social Networks

creativity is a basic skill which can find solutions to problems in life.
online communities engage people to different ideas and conversations.  

VCOP life-cycle /creative cycle

Potential finding people with interests forming online relations
Coalescing forming identity & discussing values loose network to common sense of purpose. Start engaging .
Active dynamic engaging generation of new knowledge takes place. 
Dispersed members at periphery & then core loose interest in the topic. Influx of knowledge reduced. Less attractive. 
Memorable tales and anecdotes live on. People still associate with part of their identity.

creative cycle. 

Successful VCOP
Experts / facilitation plays important role
Stimulus when discussions cooling off
Provide meaningful dialogue to sum up debate
Presence of experts doesn’t = success
Level of engagement e.g. story telling important aspect (enjoyable, entertaining) way of sharing knowledge

sharing knowledge is seen as a more positive way of working than the presence of a expert or tutor. 

...a way of being creative
Est: 2000
Inspired by the … verb 'to show‘...opens up the studio of designers and artists, allowing everyone to not only witness the creative process, but to respond and contribute creatively’ SHOWstudio blog (2012)
Need to update the blog list of collaborators;
John Galliano, Kate Moss, Rick Owens, Comme des Garçons and Alexander McQueen... SHOWstudio has also worked with pop culture icons and creatives from the world of art, music and film including Tracey Emin, Björk, Brad Pitt and Lady Gaga.

interdisciplinary. A way to be creative. 
Blog where design work is uploaded and anyone can see and comment. 

SHOWStudio Founder

Nick Knight (Fashion photographer) has worked with the world’s most sought-after filmmakers, writers and cultural figures to create visionary online content, exploring every facet of fashion through moving image, illustration, photography and the written word.

capturing the creative process.

(4) Creativity for social good
Only The Brave Foundation 

Brave Actions For A Better World (2008)
‘mission to fight social inequality and to contribute to the sustainable development of less advantaged areas and people throughout the world’ 

Rosso is involved in this also. 

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Only The Brave Foundation can be seen as CSR
David Jones CEO Havas (2012) Brands today find creative ways to be socially responsible
In this sense CSR fits with the Rhetoric of creativity as a social good;
‘involving co-operative activity and as socially and personally empowering’ (Banaji et al, 2006 p25)
Why? What society wants and demands.
D&AD Student Awards: Unilever open brief link campaign of brand to a social or environmental issue
What the consumer wants and what they demand. 

Creativity as Economic Imperative
Digital Britain (2009) Report
Creative skills particularly important to UK economy 
Facilitating creative skills particularly important to economy
 Today’s most innovative companies... succeed by designing their organisations to maximize collaboration’ (Sawyer, 2008 xiii)
Google & Ideo (dominant creative models) 
Creative teams practice improvisation (on & offline) 
Good improv involves deep listening skills – working as one, idea  goes places wouldn’t as an individual

Play and Creativity
Divergent thinking activities 
Image surfing 
Improvisational theatre
100 –mile-an-hour thinking
Free- thinking
Creativity as a type of thinking

making creativity as a way of thinking and not doing. This makes a better idea.

Creativity and Cognition
Csikzentmihayli (1990) Flow 
Psycho-cultural perspective of creativity:
Refers to psychological condition of being creative. 
Enjoyment changes perception of time ‘loose-one’s-self’
Occurs when challenges & skills are high
Sawyer (2008) posits flow essential ingredient to creativity
Most common place flow experienced is when one is in conversation.
Creativity is (and always has been) collaborative

Example of Flow

…a principle that I adhere to when directing is that I make good use of everything my staff creates... animation is a fundamentally developmental process for Miyazaki, it is also, no less crucially, an eminently collaborative effort”
(Cavallaro, 2006, p134)

The Creative affordances of Technology
OCC new model of creativity (industry)
Influenced creative curriculum (9) Creative classroom
Flattening social hierarchies, empowering and connecting creatives. 
Communities of practice across disciplines & geography asynchronously or synchronously 
New initiative launched next summer ‘connect’ D&AD community ‘richer deeper engagement education and industry’
New and exciting opportunities for creatives

CHI expands global network with Bates Asia joint venture (2012)

Article about ad agency merger, a new structure 
Links to Rhetoric (5) Creativity as economic imperative 
Johnny Hornby global executive chairman (CHI) ‘new model network with deep roots in Asia and world class creative credentials".

Hornby also said "This new model network will use our big ideas process to put together bespoke multi-disciplined teams across geographies. It will be a nimbler, faster, more modern alternative to the big networks."

Beattie (BMB) ECD
Internet is the biggest idea since the wheel 
Enables lots of small ideas to circulate
‘that combination of a trillion little ideas is in itself the biggest idea there is...I think we are at the most interesting point of communications history ever...’
Digital media enabled convergence on a scale not seen before opens up opportunities for creatives. 
E.g Moon 

Visualising Creativity
Creative affordances/possibilities technology; 
Capturing creativity in real time SHOWstudio Carine Gilson's Flora LiveStudio (5th Dec, 2012)
Creativity is now massive, open and online
The Blank Sheet project – objectives to expose creativity
D&AD new initiative Making Your Mark similar thinking
VC topic commission at Liverpool Biennial 2012 (largest contemporary arts event in UK) The Source  Doug Aiken 
Installation help to summarise the threads of the lecture

Talking about creativity

What is the source of a creative idea?
Installation collaboration with David Adjaye
Visitors enter a pavilion with screens projecting artists; Jack White, Tilda Winton (actress) and others discussing the roots of their creativity with Doug Aiken.

How do you talk about your Creativity?
Residues of Mimesis may remain.
Contemporary literature suggests creativity is spoken about by creatives as a thinking and knowledge-generating activity. 
OCC sits in opposition to the Creative Genius rhetoric, where creativity is an innate aptitude for individuals. 
The has led to a dualist perspective of real individual creativity against a communal other.
Consequences; any form of collaborative creativity is considered of inferior value to independent practice
Sawyer (2008) and others argue the opposite that collaborative creativity is a superior type that increases innovation and suits the contemporary networked economy.

You are not a gadget

Practicing OCC could potentially diffuse the dualisms that have existed in the rhetoric of creativity. 
Creative practicing  does not necessarily entail replacing a focus on the creative sovereignty of the individual. As Lanier explains, ‘You have to be somebody before you can share yourself’ (Lanier, 2010, p.1). 

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