Tuesday, 22 November 2011

How to travel crease free - Secondary Research

Qualitative research
Qualitative research seeks out the ‘why’, not the ‘how’ of its topic through the analysis of unstructured information – things like interview transcripts, open ended survey responses, emails, notes, feedback forms, photos and videos. It doesn’t just rely on statistics or numbers, which are the domain of quantitative researchers.
Qualitative research is used to gain insight into people's attitudes, behaviours, value systems, concerns, motivations, aspirations, culture or lifestyles. It’s used to inform business decisions, policy formation, communication and research. Focus groups, in-depth interviews, content analysis, ethnography, evaluation and semiotics are among the many formal approaches that are used, but qualitative research also involves the analysis of any unstructured material, including customer feedback forms, reports or media clips.
Collecting and analyzing this unstructured information can be messy and time consuming using manual methods. When faced with volumes of materials, finding themes and extracting meaning can be a daunting task.

Quantative Research
This means that the quantitative researcher asks a specific, narrow question and collects numerical data from participants to answer the question. The researcher analyzes the data with the help of statistics. The researcher is hoping the numbers will yield an unbiased result that can be generalized to some larger population. Qualitative research, on the other hand, asks broad questions and collects word data from participants. The researcher looks for themes and describes the information in themes and patterns exclusive to that set of participants.

Why clothes Wrinkle
Heat and water cause wrinkles. Heat breaks the bonds holding polymers in place within the fibers of a fabric. When the bonds are broken, the fibers are less rigid with respect to each other, so they can shift into new positions. As the fabric cools, new bonds form, locking the fibers into a new shape. This is both how ironing gets wrinkles out of your clothes and why letting clothes cool in a heap fresh from the dryer will instill wrinkles. Not all fabrics are equally susceptible to this type of wrinkling. Nylon, wool, and polyester all have a glass transition temperature, or temperature below which the polymer molecules are almost crystalline in structure and above which the material is more fluid, or glassy.
Water is the key culprit behind wrinkling of cellulose-based fabrics, such as cotton, linen, and rayon. The polymers in these fabrics are linked by hydrogen bonds, which are the same bonds that hold together molecules of water. Absorbent fabrics allow water molecules to penetrate the areas between the polymer chains, permitting the formation of new hydrogen bonds. The new shape becomes locked in as the water evaporates. Steam ironing works well on removing these wrinkles.

Everyone has wrinkly clothes when they have just been washed, some people just leave them and wear them wrinkled, others iron them and others get someone else to iron them.
Ironing is an occupation for some people, there are many different ways in which you can iron and salaries for these differ.
Part-Time Employment
Young professionals, stay-at-home parents with small children, and those with the motivation to earn supplemental funds take in ironing at home. Although the Bureau of Labor Statistics fails to record the annual salary for their efforts, the supplemental labor force also offers ironing services. Ironing services charge between $1 and $5 per item and they profit through the volume of work done during the day.
Professional Pleaters and Pressers
Commercial terms for jobs involving ironing include pleaters and pressers. Pleaters work with various types of fashion designs and home decor. Waist pleaters, for instance, tape the pleat design for skirts and then press the pleats, or folds, in place. Drapery pleaters and pressers complete the look for window coverings. Both occupations work in the garment industry. Fewer than 10,000 people in the United States labor in these occupations, earning an average hourly pay of $9.19 and an annual mean wage of $19,102, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Dry Cleaning
Dry cleaning service fees include pressing. Businesses offering ironing, or pressing, charge a fee per item based on the difficulty of the job and the type of fabric. Fees for sheets, tablecloths, bedspreads and duvets top the fee chart based on the size of the item and the difficulty in keeping the large surface free from winkles during the pressing process. Ruffled tuxedo shirts require additional time to press and cost more compared to traditional dress shirts. Charges include the cost of the hanger, although some companies offer a discount for customers who recycle hangers. Fees also include polybags to keep items clean. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported the annual salary of dry cleaner and pressing workers as $19,540 in May 2010.
Valet Work
A valet works as a personal attendant. The exact job duties vary with the person requiring home services, but most valets organize personal activities related to the home, much like a personal secretary for dressing, personal hygiene and personal appearance. Valets press and iron clothing for the person or the family. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported the average salary in 2010 as $20,360, or $11.09 an hour, for this occupation.
Coin Laundry
Coin laundries typically offer fluff and fold, washing, drying, pressing and ironing services. Firms assess a price per pound for washing and drying, but assess a fee per item for ironing. The Coin Laundry Association, representing businesses with commercial-grade, self-service laundry equipment, reported in 2006 that coin laundries earned a cash flow between $15,000 and $200,000 annually, depending on the business hours and the geographic location. The association notes that coin laundries also include dry cleaning and washing services, including ironing, and these services increase profits for the business.
(source: http://www.ehow.com/info_8609769_average-salary-ironing.html)
There are many ways in which you can travel crease free, I have done some research on the internet to try and find out the best way to stop this happening.
1. Travelling crease free can come down to how you pack your case/bag
Tips on how to travel crease free:
Lighten your load. Jamming your suitcases as full as a subway at rush hour will leave your clothes as exhausted as a crushed commuter. Clothes become wrinkled almost as soon as you shove that last leaden item into your bag. The easiest things to jettison? Hairdryers and clothes irons. Almost every hotel room (and hostel) in the world has these items to lend. 

One word: Plastic. If you remember only one word in your packing efforts, this is the one. And here's why: friction causes wrinkling, plastic reduces friction. It's that easy. The best way to utilize this basic plastic physics is with dry-cleaner bags. All hanger items should be packed in individual bags (one outfit per dry-cleaner bag). Clothes arrive in a perfectly preserved state. Really! Another great plastic tip: zip-top baggies. Use these for dirty shoes, shampoo bottles, or anything else you want to isolate from your good clothes.
Rolling, rolling, rolling. You have two options for items that you're not hanging: folding or rolling. Rolling is a great space-saving and wrinkle-reducing choice for jeans and T-shirts. Here's how you do it: take a pair of jeans and fold them lengthwise so that the legs are stacked on top of each other. Now, starting from the cuff, roll your way up. For T-shirts, place face down, fold arms back (you should now have a long rectangle), fold lengthwise, and roll up.
Fold it. For sweaters and other non-T tops, the square fold is the way to go. Here's a quick primer: button all buttons and lay shirts face down on a bed or flat surface. Smooth away wrinkles. Fold material in at the shoulders and lay arms flat along the body so that you create a roughly two-inch overlap of material on both sides. Now fold up a third of the material from the bottom and overlap a third from the top. You should now have a tidy package worthy of any chain retailer.
Delicate situation. What to do with your undies and lingerie? Buy inexpensive mesh laundry bags; they're made of nylon and are lightweight. Stow your delicates in here. An added bonus: if your bag is inspected, no one need touch your underwear since an inspector will be able to see into the bag. Socks, by the way, should be rolled up and placed inside shoes or used to fill gaps in your bag (see below).
Pack it away. Now take all your tidily arrayed garments and put them outside your bag. Your goal is to use them to create a clothing jigsaw puzzle where no empty spaces remain and items won't shift. Lay your bag flat and put folded clothes in piles down the center. Put your toiletries kit at what will be the bottom of your bag when it's standing (this should now be the heaviest item in your bag; in this position it won't crush other items). Rolled clothes fit into the spaces around the stacked clothes. Single shoes should be tucked into remaining openings (remember, shoes aren't friends; they don't need to travel right up next to each other). Socks fill in remaining holes. Voila! You are now a wrinkle-free savvy traveler!

Methods of packing clothes: 
Fold and Roll
1. Roll up garments that don’t wrinkle as easily. These include t-shirts, underwear, jeans, and cotton slacks.
2. Fold garments like dress slacks, dress shirts, and dress coats.
3. Place the rolled up garments on the bottom of the bag. Then place the folded garments on top.
4. Place shoes, socks, and your Dopp kit along the sides of the bag.
Alternate Folding
One way to avoid creases in clothing is by placing one garment between the folds of another garment. By placing another garment between the folds, you can prevent a crease from forming. Other travelling tips:Steam it up. It’s hard to avoid wrinkling your clothes during transit. When you arrive to your destination, it’s best to unpack right away so you can let your clothes relax before creases and wrinkles get a chance to set. If you still have some wrinkles in your clothes, hang them up in the bathroom while you’re taking a hot steamy shower. This should help reduce any wrinkling.
2.Wrinkle-free clothing:
We started TravelSmith in 1992 with one compelling mission: to make travel as hassle-free and pleasurable as possible. Drawing on our resources and inspirations from around the globe, we set out to provide goods that make the journey smoother and simpler, lighter and more convenient.

We found wrinkle-resistant fabrics - both natural and high-performance - that look great after being stuffed in a suitcase for a week or worn on the redeye overnight. We created stylish, versatile, easy-care clothing and developed lightweight, innovative accessories that make travel more secure and comfortable. And we hired like-minded travelers with a passion for sharing their knowledge and experience.

So whether you're planning a leisurely getaway or an all-out adventure, TravelSmith is your single outfitting resource. Naturally, we stand confidently behind everything we make and guarantee everything we sell. Travel is unpredictable, so you should be able to count on your gear.
3.Products to get rid of wrinkles
Travel Size Wrinkle Wiz Clothing Fabric Spray

Spruce up travel rumpled garments either on the hanger or while you're wearing them. Wrinkle Wiz works best on natural fabrics and is proven safe on even the most delicate fabrics including silk and satin.

"I bought this, but because I was unsure of whether or not it would be good, I also took along my iron. I must say that I didn't use the iron once. It actually worked. Of course, when I say "worked" I mean it was very good for being on vacation. I wouldn't consider it working if I were at home. (my standards would be higher) But then again, that's not what it's for: it's to give you time while you travel to actually enjoy your trip."
"This stuff is so cool, it actually works! I received it as a gift from a friend... I'm going to Europe where I wasn't sure there would be an iron in the hotel room. I tried it on a pair of 100% linen capris, and it works like a charm. You just smooth the wrinkles with your hands. Smells nice, too, and with the 3 oz size, it should not be a problem (I hope) to take the aerosol on the plane."
"We just returned from a 23 day trip around the world, focusing on China and Korea. I bought this at a luggage store and wasn't sure if it would work well or not. I loved it! I ironed maybe one or two times just because there was an iron set up already, but other than that, we would pull clothes out, spray it on and follow the directions. I am searching it now to buy more since we travel quite a bit. Definitely a great product!"
"I was a little skeptical purchasing this, but it truly is the best spray for relaxing wrinkles. I always take when I travel. And I sometimes use at home! You will not be disappointed. It smooths out some of the toughest wrinkles." 
(source: http://www.amazon.com/Travel-Wrinkle-Wiz-Clothing-Fabric/dp/B000BI8ENG)

Characteristics of fabrics
Natural Fabrics
Natural fabrics are created from fibers of animal coats, silkworm cocoons, and plants' seeds, leaves, and stems:

"Corduroy" does not refer to the fabric, but to a certain structure of fabric. It can therefore be made of natural or synthetic fibers, but most often it is made from cotton.
Corduroy comes in different weights, but it is usually thick and somewhat stiff.
Absorbs and releases moisture quickly, thus allowing the fabric to "breathe".
It is very warm and durable.
 Care Instructions:
Corduroy can be made from different fabrics; care instructions vary depending on the fabric. Most corduroy is made from cotton, which is machine washable and can be ironed at high temperatures.
When removing stains from corduroy, blot with a wet cloth and avoid harsh brushing.

Cool, soft and comfortable.
Absorbs and releases perspiration quickly, thus allowing the fabric to breathe. This makes cotton cool in the summer and warm in the winter.
Can wrinkle easily.
There are many varieties of cotton. Each has a distinct structure in how the cotton is woven which gives the fabric unique qualities. Varieties listed in this guide are:Corduroy, Denim, Flannel, Seersucker, Terrycloth, and Velvet.
Care Instructions:
Machine washable.
Chlorine bleach can be used to restore white garments to a clear white but bleach may yellow chemically finished cottons or remove color in dyed cottons.
Cotton can be ironed at relatively high temperatures.

Denim is made from tightly woven cotton.
Very absorbent like cotton, but heavier and more durable.
Care Instructions:
Machine washable. Can be ironed at relatively high temperatures.
Denim is dyed is such a way that the color sits on the surface of the fabric, causing it to fade more easily. Turn the garment inside out before washing to preserve color.

"Flannel" does not refer to the fabric, but to a certain structure of fabric.
It is usually made from cotton, but can also be made from wool.
Flannel feels soft and fuzzy.
The structure makes the fabric thicker and more insulated so it provides more warmth.
Absorbs and releases perspiration quickly, thus allowing the fabric to "breathe".
It is very durable.
Care Instructions:
Flannel can be made from cotton or wool. Follow the care instructions for these fabrics as is appropriate to your specific garment.

Woven of fibers from the stems of the Cannabis Sativa plant.
Similar to linen in both feel and appearance.
Three times stronger than cotton.
Not as soft as other fibers.
Naturally resistant to mold, mildew, rot.
Readily takes dyes.
Absorbs and releases perspiration quickly, thus allowing the fabric to "breathe".
UV resistant.
Wrinkles easily/poor resiliency.
Does not drape well.
Care Instructions:
Softens with each washing, without fiber degradation.
Wash in cold water.
Hemp will shrink in the dryer or in hot water if the garment has not been pre-shrunk.

Most commonly made of pig, lamb or cowhide.
Requires a lot of chemicals to cure it.
Absorbs and releases perspiration quickly, thus allowing the fabric to "breathe". This makes it warm in the winter.
Is very durable — it is difficult to tear or puncture.
Many different finishes include: smooth; buffed or nubuck, appearing somewhat like a matte suede; and rough, appearing wrinkled.
A natural tendency to repel liquids and resist staining.
Fire resistant.
Care Instructions:
Leather needs to breathe —do not store in a plastic bag or overly heated area.
If garment becomes wet, let it dry naturally. Avoid excessive heat or humidity.
Wrinkles usually work themselves out by hanging it on a non-wire hanger, but if ironing is necessary, cover the garment with heavy paper, set the iron to the lowest setting without steam.
Most leather garments require special care in cleaning.

Woven from the stems of flax, a vegetable fiber.
Has twice the strength of cotton.
Absorbs and releases perspiration quickly, thus allowing the fabric to "breathe". Linen is one of the most breathable fabrics, making it especially cool and comfortable to wear in the heat.
Lightweight and absorbent.
Not stretchy.
Wrinkles easily.
Care Instructions:
Hand wash or dry clean.
Seersucker does not refer to the fabric, but to a certain structure of fabric.
It is usually made of cotton, but can be made from rayon or other synthetics.
It has a puckered style so that it lifts off your skin and lets air circulate.
Cotton seersucker is very breathable and cool in the summer.
Care Instructions:
Follow the appropriate care instructions depending on the fabric content of your seersucker garment.
Seersucker does not need to be ironed.

Known for its versatility, softness, and comfort.
Is the strongest natural fiber.
Absorbs moisture, which makes it cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Silk garments can be worn for all seasons.
Because of its high absorbency, it is easily dyed in many deep colors.
Retains shape, drapes well, and shimmers with a luster.
Made of a natural protein fiber, like human hair, taken from the cocoon of the silkworm.
Weakened by sunlight and perspiration.
Care Instructions:
Depending on how silk has been treated it may need to be dry cleaned, hand washed, or may be machine washable. It's important to read the care instructions tag of your garment, because silk garments can shrink if the fabric has not been washed prior to garment construction.
May yellow and fade with the use of a high iron setting. A press cloth (a cloth used between an iron and a garment) and a steam iron are recommended.
"Terrycloth" does not refer to the fabric, but to a certain structure of fabric.
Terrycloth is usually made from cotton, but can also be made from linen. It is either woven or knitted.
It is very heavy, thick, and absorbent.
It is not used for clothing so much as for towels.
Care Instructions:
Follow care instructions for either cotton or linen, depending on the terrycloth.
Terrycloth does not require ironing.

"Velvet" does not refer to the fabric, but to a certain structure of fabric.
It is usually made from cotton, silk, or rayon.
Velvet is durable, thick, plush, and warm.
It has a short fuzzy surface and drapes well.
Care Instructions:
Velvet must be handled carefully and stored properly because folds and creases can permanently flatten the surface. To get creases out of velvet, use a steamer or a velvet board (a flat board that has hundreds of fine wires sticking out perpendicularly). The velvet board helps to protect the surface while it is being ironed.
Velvet can be made from many different fabrics; review the care instructions that correspond to each velvet garment. Some velvet is machine washable, but many require dry cleaning.

Can be scratchy — which gives some people the impression that they are "allergic" to wool. Because wool fiber comes from a variety of animal coats, not all wool is scratchy. In fact, some can be extremely soft, such as Angora Wool.
Will absorb up to 30% of its weight in moisture without feeling damp.
Absorbs and releases moisture quickly, thus allowing the fabric to "breathe".
Dirt resistant, flame resistant, and, in many weaves, resists wear and tear.
Stronger when dry.
Acts as an insulator so it is very warm.
Care Instructions:
Fibers will cling together tightly when wool is improperly washed, causing the garment to shrink.
Because wool garments do not soil easily, they do not need to be cleaned after every use.
Recommended care for most wool garments is dry cleaning, however washable wools do exist.
Which fabrics are more prone to wrinkle?
Sometimes it seems as if an organic cotton shirt will sprout contact wrinkles if you just look at it and crinkle your nose while a polyester dress can survive a train wreck and still be ready for a night on the town. Generally, clothes using fabrics made from natural cellulose – cotton, hemp, linen (flax) – are the most prone to wrinkle. Clothes made from regenerated cellulose – bamboo, rayon, Tencel / lyocell, Modal – or from regenerated plant protein – soya, Ingeo – are less likely to wrinkle and wrinkles are easier to remove. Animal fibers – wool, alpaca, cashmere – are generally the least likely to wrinkle. Silk tends to fall in the middle category of wrinkle-ocity.
But, this doesn’t mean that just because a favorite organic cotton skirt is made from organic cotton or hemp that it is going to have more wrinkles than Shar Pei puppies. The tendency of a garment to attract or repel wrinkle is affected by many qualifications such as: weave – knits are less likely to show wrinkles than woven fabrics; fiber blends – wrinkles will easily fall out of a woven yoga top of 95% organic cotton blended with 5% lycra (spandex); quality of fibers – other factors being equal, high quality long staple organic cotton fibers are less likely to wrinkle than lower quality conventionally grown short cotton fibers; quality of manufacturing – a dress of tightly woven, high thread count cotton finished with tightly sown seams will last longer, look better and often require less ironing than a low quality garment; fabric finishes – this is tricky as chemical fabric finishes can be added during manufacturing or during laundering that will reduce the propensity for wrinkling, more about this later; and laundering – which can make all the difference between having your clothing look like the surface of the moon during a solar eclipse or the smooth, shiny backside of a new baby … well, maybe not the best metaphor but you get the idea.
Finishing techniques
In textile manufacturing, finishing refers to any process performed on yarn or fabric after weaving or knitting to improve the look, performance, or "hand" (feel) of the finished textile or clothing.Some finishing techniques, such as fulling, have been in use with hand-weaving for centuries; others, such as mercerisation, are byproducts of the Industrial Revolution.
In order to impart the required functional properties to the fiber or fabric, it is customary to subject the material to different types of physical and chemical treatments. For example, wash and wear finish for a cotton fabric is necessary to make it crease-free or wrinkle-free. In a similar way, mercerising, singeing, flame retardant, water repellent, waterproof, anti-static and peach finishing achieve various fabric properties desired by consumers. 

Crease-Resist finish or "wash-and-wear" or "wrinkle-free" finishes are achieved by the addition of a chemical resin finish that makes the fiber take on a quality similar to that of synthetic fibers.
Wash and wear: used mainly with cotton fabrics, its purpose being to reduce the tendency of garments to crease in everyday wear, and to achieve the capacity in garments to recover from creasing when hanging, making them easy to care for. The basis of the finish is the principle of the chemical reinforcement of cellulose fibres.

A study on cotton and how creasing affects it

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