Tuesday, 24 September 2013

OUGD601 // Dissertation // The History of Newspaper Publishing

Newspaper publishing
“A community needs news,” said the British author Dame Rebecca West, “for the same reason that a man needs eyes. It has to see where it is going.” For William Randolph Hearst, one of America’s most important newspaper publishers, news was “what someone wants to stop you [from] printing: all the rest is ads.” Both idealistic and mercenary motives have contributed to the development of modern newspapers, which continue to attract millions of regular readers throughout the world despite stern competition from radio, television, and the Internet. Modern electronics, which put a television set in almost every home in the Western world, also revolutionized the newspaper printing process, allowing news articles and photographs to be transmitted and published simultaneously in many parts of the world.

Newspapers can be published daily or weekly, in the morning or in the afternoon; they may be published for the few hundred inhabitants of a small town, for a whole country, or even for an international audience. A newspaper differs from other forms of publication in its immediacy, characteristic headlines, and coverage of a miscellany of topical issues and events. According to a report in 1949 by the Royal Commission on the Press in the United Kingdom, to qualify as news “an event must first be interesting to the public, and the public for this purpose means for each paper the people who read that paper.” But the importance of newspapers stretches far beyond a passing human interest in events. In the 19th century the first independent newspapers contributed significantly to the spread of literacy and of the concepts of human rights and democratic freedoms. Newspapers continue to shape opinions in the “global village” of the 21st century, where international preoccupations are frequently of concern to the individual, and where individual tragedies are often played out on an international stage. Since it is commonly held that individuals have a right to know enough about what is happening to be able to participate in public life, the newspaper journalist is deemed to have a duty to inform. Whenever this public right to know comes under attack, a heavy responsibility falls on the journalist.

Origins and early evidences
The daily newspaper is essentially the product of an industrialized society. In its independent form, the newspaper is usually integral to the development of democracy. The newspaper thus defined was fairly late in emerging, since it depended on a certain basic freedom of speech and relatively widespread literacy.

The first newspapers
Newspaper development can be seen in three phases: first, the sporadic forerunners, gradually moving toward regular publication; second, more or less regular journals but liable to suppression and subject to censorship and licensing; and, third, a phase in which direct censorship was abandoned but attempts at control continued through taxation, bribery, and prosecution. Thereafter, some degree of independence has followed.

Commercial Newsletters in Europe
The newsletter had been accepted as a conventional form of correspondence between officials or friends in Roman times, and in the late Middle Ages newsletters between the important trading families began to cross frontiers regularly. One family, the Fuggers, were owners of an important financial house in the German city of Augsburg; their regular newsletters were well-known even to outsiders. Traders’ newsletters contained commercial information on the availability and prices of various goods and services, but they also could include political news, just as the contemporary financial editor must consider the broader sweep of events likely to influence economic transactions. The commercial newsletter thus became the first vehicle of “serious” news, with its attempt at regular, frequent publication and concern with topical events generally.

The newsletter usually accorded primacy as a definite newspaper is the Relation of Strasbourg, first printed in 1609 by Johann Carolus. A close rival is the Avisa Relation oder Zeitung (Zeitung is the German word for “newspaper”), founded in the same year by Heinrich Julius, duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. In 1605, in the Low Countries, Abraham Verhoeven of Antwerp had begun publication of the Nieuwe Tijdingen (“New Tidings”), although the earliest surviving copy is dated 1621. In any case, this historical rivalry is evidence of a fairly sudden demand for newspapers at the start of the 17th century, and the continuous publication of the Nieuwe Tijdingen indicates that this demand soon became well-established. Although these publications were emerging throughout western Europe, it was the Dutch, with their advantageous geographical and trading position, who pioneered the international coverage of news through their corantos, or “current news.” The Courante uyt Italien, Duytsland, & C. (“News from Italy, Germany, and Elsewhere”) began to appear weekly or twice-weekly in 1618.

Similar rudimentary newspapers soon appeared in other European countries: Switzerland (1610), the Habsburg domains in central Europe (1620), England (1621), France (1631), Denmark (1634), Italy (1636), Sweden (1645), and Poland (1661). English and French translations of Dutch corantos were also available. But signs of official intolerance emerged fairly soon, and censorship stifled newspaper development in the late 17th century and into the 18th century in continental Europe. In Paris in 1631, the Nouvelles Ordinaires de Divers Endroits (“Common News from Many Places”), a publishing venture by the booksellers Louis Vendosme and Jean Martin, was immediately replaced by an officially authorized publication, La Gazette, published under the name of Théophraste Renaudot but with influential backing by Cardinal de Richelieu. The new publication was to continue (as La Gazette de France) until 1917, casting the shadow of authority over nonofficial newspapers throughout its life. The first French daily—Le Journal de Paris—was not started until 1777; and although the Revolution of 1789 brought a temporary upsurge in newspaper publishing, with 350 papers being issued in Paris alone, the return to monarchy brought another clampdown. Napoleon I had his own official organ—Le Moniteur Universel, first published by Charles-Joseph Panckoucke (one of a family of booksellers and writers) in 1789 and lasting until 1869—and during his reign there were only three other French newspapers.

Early Newspapers in Britain
The British press made its debut—an inauspicious one—in the early 17th century. News coverage was restricted to foreign affairs for a long time, and even the first so-called English newspaper was a translation by Nathaniel Butter, a printer, of a Dutch coranto called Corante, or newes from Italy, Germany, Hungarie, Spaine and France, dated September 24, 1621. Together with two London stationers, Nicholas Bourne and Thomas Archer, Butter published a stream of corantos and avisos (Spanish: warnings or announcements), including a numbered and dated series of Weekley Newes, beginning in 1622. But a number of difficulties confronted a prospective publisher: a license to publish was needed; regular censorship of reporting was in operation from the earliest days; and foreign news no longer appeared because of a decree by the Court of the Star Chamber (in force from 1632 to 1638) completely banning the publication of accounts of the Thirty Years’ War.

Between the abolition of the Star Chamber in 1641 and the establishment of the Commonwealth in 1649, publishers enjoyed a short spell of freedom from strict official control. Publication of domestic news began to appear more regularly, shedding the original book form. News and headlines increasingly replaced the old title page. The Civil Wars (1642–51) acted as a stimulus to reporters and publishers, and 300 distinct news publications were brought out between 1640 and 1660, although many of these were only occasional reports from the battle front, such as Truths from York or News from Hull. Some contemporary publications, using words such as Intelligencer, Scout, Spy, or Post in their names, reflected the bellicosity of the times, but the less-politicized word Mercury still abounded on many newspaper mastheads, including those of propaganda papers such as Mercurius Academicus (Royalist) and Mercurius Britannicus (Parliamentarian). The Parliamentarian victory brought strict control of the press from 1649 to 1658, and the restored monarchy was even more absolute, with the press being restricted to just two official papers. During the period of the Licensing Act (1662–94), an official surveyor of the press was given the sole privilege of publishing newspapers. The concept of the newspaper of record—the public documentation of legal notices—was established with the Oxford Gazette (founded 1665 and renamed the London Gazette within months), which was eventually followed by the Edinburgh Gazette (founded in 1699) and the Dublin Gazette (founded in 1706, but renamed Iris Oifigiúil in 1922 when the Belfast Gazette was founded). The Glorious Revolution (1688–89) produced a return to more permissive publishing laws and the first provincial presses were set up, starting with the Worcester Post Man (1690).

As it developed, the British press would remain principally a national one centred on Fleet Street in London. Appearing briefly was Lloyd’s News (1696), issuing from Edward Lloyd’s coffeehouse, which had become a centre of marine insurance. The subsequent Lloyd’s List and Shipping Gazette (from 1734), with its combination of general and shipping news, exemplified both the importance of the City of London’s financial activities to the newspapers and the importance of a reliable and regular financial press to business.

In the early years of the 18th century, the British newspaper was approaching its first stage of maturity. After 1691, improvements in the postal system made daily publication practical, the first attempt at doing so being the single-sheet Daily Courant (1702–35), which consisted largely of extracts from foreign corantos. A more radical departure was the triweekly Review (1704–13), produced by Daniel Defoe, in which the writer’s opinion on current political topics was given, introducing the editorial, or leading article. Defoe had been imprisoned, in 1702, for his pamphlet The Shortest Way with Dissenters, but many eminent British writers were being attracted to the newspapers. Henry Muddiman had gained eminence as the “journalist” who edited the London Gazette (from 1666). John Milton had edited the Mercurius Politicus under Oliver Cromwell, and Sir Richard Steele and Joseph Addison, The Spectator (published daily 1711–12). The Spectator and The Tatler (triweekly, 1709–11, also written by Steele) are commemorated in the modern magazines of the same name (see below Magazine publishing), but their incorporation of social and artistic news and comment influenced the content of the contemporary newspaper permanently. Sales of the popular Spectator sometimes ran as high as 3,000 copies, and already this circulation level was enough to attract advertising. An excise duty on advertisements was introduced by the Stamp Act (1712), along with other so-called taxes on knowledge aimed at curbing the nascent power of the press. The rate of duty, at one penny on a whole sheet (four sides of print), was the same as the cover price of The Spectator, and this effective doubling of the price killed it, along with many other newspapers. But the newspaper had already become a permanent part of the social and literary life in London, and not even higher duties could prevent the proliferation of newspaper titles throughout the century.

Typical of the new breed of English papers was The Daily Advertiser (1730–1807), which offered advertising space along with news of a political, commercial, and social nature. An important gap in the political pages was filled from 1771, when the right to publish proceedings in Parliament had been granted. This right was not won lightly, for illicit accounts of debates in the House had appeared in the monthly Political State of Great Britain (1711–40) and every effort had been made to stop them. But campaigners such as the political reformer John Wilkes (with the North Briton, 1762) eventually won out. Politicians of both Whig and Tory sympathies ran their own often scurrilous newspapers or simply bribed journalists with occasional handouts and annual stipends, but later in the century there emerged a more sophisticated reader who demanded, and received, an independent viewpoint. Eminent newspapers of the time included the Morning Post (1772), The Times (from 1788, but started as the Daily Universal Register in 1785), and The Observer (1791). Censorship continued in the guise of frequent libel prosecutions, and as late as 1810 the radical political essayist William Cobbett was imprisoned and fined for denouncing flogging in the army, but the principle of a free press, at least in peacetime conditions, had been firmly established.

Era of the Industrial Revolution
By 1800 educated citizens of most European countries and the United States could expect some access to independent news coverage and political comment, even if it was only to be found in clandestinely published newssheets. The basic formulas for serious newspapers and commercially successful, if sensational, popular newspapers had been worked out by shrewd writers and editors—members of the new profession of journalism. These formulas were to be elaborated throughout the 19th century, and by the end of the century the modern pattern of newspaper ownership and production had already been set in the United States and Britain, with newspapers passing from the realm of literature to that of big business.

Technological Advances
New technology influenced newspapers both directly, through the revolution in printing techniques, and indirectly, through the rapid developments in transport and communications. In printing technology, necessity determined invention when the demand for newspapers exceeded the few thousand weekly copies required of the most popular titles. In 1814, the steam-driven “double-press” was introduced at The Times in London, allowing an output of 5,000 copies per hour. The higher output was a contributing factor in the rise of The Times’s circulation from 5,000 to 50,000 by the middle of the century. The hand-operated wooden press used for books, newspapers, and single sheets alike was further pushed into obsolescence by the invention of mechanical lead type, the Fourdrinier machine (which produced cheap cellulose paper in rolls), curved printing plates, automatic ink-feeds, and, in 1865, the cylindrical rotary press.

The main breakthrough, however, did not take place until the end of the century, with the introduction of automatic typesetting on Ottmar Mergenthaler’s Linotype machine. Until then, each line of words to be printed had to be lined up and justified (made to fill exactly the allotted space between margins) by hand. After printing, the letters were replaced in alphabetical order by hand for reuse. The new machines were operated by a keyboard which selected a matrix for the correct letter from a channel in the magazine; the line of text was automatically justified (made to fill the line exactly by adjusting the space between words); the line of lead type was cast; and the matrices were automatically returned to the correct channels, thus saving the need for the lengthy process of manual distribution. The first Linotype machines were introduced at the New York Tribune in 1886 and in Britain at the Newcastle Chronicle in 1889. By 1895 every publisher in Fleet Street (then the centre of London newspaper publishing) was using the new machines. Linotype keyboard operators could set copy six times faster than the hand compositor. Electricity, introduced in 1884, was also a spur to the printing industry, as were machines that could not only print but could also cut, fold, and bind together newspapers of any size.

The content of newspapers was also transformed by the speeding up of communication, which allowed news to be gathered instantly from distant cities via the telephone or even from foreign countries through the seabed cables laid between Dover, England, and Calais, France, in 1851 and across the Atlantic in 1866. In 1815, when the mounted courier and the packet boat represented the chief means of getting news, it ordinarily took four days before news of an event as near as Brussels could be reported in London. The railway and other improvements in communications, such as the telegraph, revolutionized the newsman’s conception of time and space. The railway networks not only moved reporters rapidly to and from their destinations but also helped to distribute newspapers, thus making them a more urgent and attractive commodity. Rapid and widespread delivery, especially in Britain and France, gave the larger newspapers based in capital cities a national status.

Foundations of Modern Journalism
The creation of new industrial occupations in society as a whole was reported by a new set of newspapermen who had far more specific jobs than their 18th-century predecessors. Earlier journalists might write, edit, and print each copy of the paper by themselves. Even in the 19th century, James Gordon Bennett handled nearly every aspect of publishing a daily newspaper when he founded the New York Herald in 1835. With the expansion of newspapers, full-time reporters, whose job was to go and get the news, were recruited, and they replaced many occasional correspondents, although there was always room for the stringer, a part-time reporter based in a small town or a remote region. William Howard Russell, a reporter for the London Times during the Crimean War (1853–56), became famous as one of the first war correspondents, and his writings inspired Florence Nightingale to take up her mission to the Crimea. More than 150 war correspondents reported on the American Civil War (1861–65). The reporter could become as celebrated as the soldier, and vigilant reporting could perhaps prevent some of the atrocities perpetrated in wartime. In peacetime the fearless on-the-spot reporter hoping to “scoop” rival papers for a big story also became a folk hero, and his byline (the name or nom de plume published with the article) could become better known than that of the editor.

The expense of employing a large team of reporters, some of whom could be out of the office for months, proved impossible for smaller papers, thus paving the way for the news agency. The French businessman Charles Havas had begun this development in 1835 by turning a translation company into an agency offering the French press translated items from the chief European papers. His carrier-pigeon service between London, Paris, and Brussels followed, turning the company into an international concern that sold news items and that, eventually, also dealt in advertising space. Paul Julius Reuter, a former Havas employee, was among the first to exploit the new telegraphic cable lines in Germany, but his real success came in London, where he set up shop in 1851 as a supplier of overseas commercial information. Expansion soon led to the creation of the Reuters service of foreign telegrams to the press, an organization that grew with the spread of the British Empire to cover a large part of the world. In the United States, meanwhile, a very different type of agency—the newspaper cooperative—had arisen. Six New York City papers were the founding members; they suspended their traditional rivalries to share the cost of reporting the war with Mexico (1846–48) by establishing the New York Associated Press agency. Between 1870 and 1934, a series of agency treaties divided the world into exclusive territories for each major agency, but thereafter freedom of international operation was reinstated. The press agencies ensured a continuous supply of international “spot news”—i.e., the bare facts about events as they occur—and raised standards of objective news reporting. For their feature pages, American newspaper editors came to rely on the feature syndicates, which supplied ready-to-use material that could range from medical columns and book reviews to astrological forecasts and crossword puzzles.

Growth of the Newspaper Business in the English Speaking World
Advances in newspaper production matched a quickening in the pace of life for the millions of people who read newspapers in the late 19th century. The railways, which transported newspapers rapidly from town to town, contributed to the breakdown of rural isolation, while the steamship and the telegraph brought nations closer together. Mass-produced newspapers with a broad appeal became available for the newly literate or semiliterate industrial worker. Circulations of some popular papers were climbing toward one million by the end of the century, and newspaper publishing and advertising had become profitable and influential commercial enterprises.

Great Britain
In Europe, Britain alone could boast the presence of an independent press in the first half of the 19th century. The London Times demonstrated the value of journalistic objectivity and the need to criticize governments if hard-won rights were to be preserved. Under the consistent management of John Walter II and John Walter III, son and grandson of the founder, and with enlightened editorial control from outstanding journalists such as Thomas Barnes and John Thaddeus Delane, The Times became a model for most serious British newspapers. In 1819 its reporting of the Peterloo Massacre by government troops at a political rally in Manchester was uncompromising; it campaigned for Parliamentary reform (achieved in 1832) and exposed the horrors of the Crimean War. From a technical standpoint The Times led the way in the introduction of advanced printing machinery and provided a fast and reliable news service as early as the Napoleonic Wars.

In 1836 the Stamp Tax was reduced to one penny, and in 1855 it was abolished entirely. This gradual relaxation of an impost on newspapers produced higher circulations for existing newspapers and encouraged the publication of new titles. Many were cheap, lurid crime sheets that disappeared as fast as they emerged. One exception was the sensational Sunday paper, the News of the World (1843), which attracted more readers than any other Sunday paper in Britain for more than a century. More characteristic of the age was the Daily Telegraph (1855), a penny paper, but one that competed directly with The Times by covering serious news stories and including thoughtful editorial comment on four sides of print, but at a quarter of the price of the fourpenny Times.

Continental Europe and other Countries
During much of the 19th century, fear of popular insurgence led the European monarchies to keep a watchful eye on the newspaper presses. At the same time, prior to the unification of the modern states of Germany and Italy, newspapers covering national affairs were of limited interest. The first signs of a popular press appeared with the founding in Paris of La Presse (1836) by Émile de Girardin, who might be called one of the first press barons. He introduced new features and serials to raise circulation as high as 20,000 and thus to enable him to lower the price of his newspapers. A prominent contemporary of Girardin was Louis-Désiré Véron, who founded the Revue de Paris (1829) and revived the liberal daily Le Constitutionnel (1835). Aspiring French authors could gain publicity for their literary talents in these papers, especially when the Tanguy Law (1850) made it compulsory for them to sign the articles they wrote. But this literary slant to French newspapers, which persists to some degree in the modern era, could not disguise their paucity of hard news.

Era of the popular press
In the industrial era, technological advances were routinely appropriated by the newspaper industry to broaden the geographic reach of a paper’s coverage, streamline newsgathering efforts, or speed the production and delivery of newspapers. Ottmar Mergenthaler’s introduction of the Linotype machine in 1886—first in the United States, then in Britain and other industrialized countries—allowed existing newspapers to increase substantially their production and circulation. The change also spurred the launch of new papers in an increasingly competitive business. In the battle to win more readers, U.S. newspapers set new standards of sensationalism—and frequently announced new sales records—with the birth of the ruthless “yellow” journalism (an expression derived from a cartoon character called the “Yellow Kid,” whose creator, Richard F. Outcault, was at the centre of the competition between American newspaper publishers William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer). In Britain the print runs of papers such as The Times and the Daily Telegraph quickly reached the 100,000 mark in the second half of the 19th century. Newspapers were becoming part of mass-market industry, and in so doing they were shaking off many of their former ties with the literary world. This was evidenced in the revolutionary 1890s by the emergence of the “press baron,” a businessman who owned a chain of several newspapers, by the increasing importance of advertising revenue, and by the use of unorthodox methods of winning more readers.

Great Britain
The British press was slower to emerge as a popular, sensational medium, but a major turning point came in 1855 when the stamp tax was abolished. This was preceded in 1853 by the abolition of the duty on advertisements, and the more liberal climate exposed a remarkable national appetite for newspapers of all kinds. The abolition of taxes and duties, including that on paper in 1861, brought down the prices of newspapers, and this alone was enough to create what were, for the time, very high circulations. By 1861 sales of the Daily Telegraph had risen to a daily average of 130,000, double that of The Times. Abolition of the tax on paper was said to have brought an additional £12,000 a year to the Telegraph. The Telegraph’s daily circulation exceeded 240,000 by 1877, then the highest in the world. The Telegraph, however, differed greatly from the more colourful New York papers. It was a worthy newspaper, more than half of it being taken up with reports of proceedings in Parliament, but its readers and those of The Times came almost exclusively from the growing mercantile middle class, for whom the two papers provided the writings of many of the best authors of the day at a comfortably affordable price. Journalistic independence was usually upheld, but as the party political hostility between William Ewart Gladstone and Benjamin Disraeli grew sharper, each paper became more partisan, a development that in turn stimulated sales.

Later in the century the British press began to adapt to the demand for less exacting reading matter. In 1888 the halfpenny evening Star was launched by the Irish nationalist politician T.P. O’Connor. Aiming at a wider public than any previous newspaper, the Star incorporated short, lively news items of human interest in a bold, attractive display. The new paper also gave good racing tips, thus endearing it to a group of men who have always contributed substantially to the circulation of what are known in the United Kingdom as the “populars.” Another contemporary evening paper, the Pall Mall Gazette, adopted American tactics for some of its crusades. In a series of articles entitled “The Maiden Tribute to Modern Babylon”, W.T. Stead exposed the prostitution of young girls in London by himself procuring one. (Indeed as a result he served a term in jail.) This early example of investigative journalism—in which the reporter creates hard news stories by investigating (sometimes clandestinely and by direct experience from inside) illegal or scandalous activities—led to the passing of the Criminal Law Amendment Act in 1885, which improved protection of minors. It also highlighted the power of the press to define what is unacceptable to society.

At the turn of the century, popular journalism came into its own in Britain with the rise of Alfred Harmsworth (later Lord Northcliffe), who can be called the first of the British press barons both for his title and for his enduring influence on the press. During his lifetime he owned, at various times, the Daily Mail, the Mirror, The Times, and the Observer. As his first effort he launched a cheap weekly magazine in 1888, when he was only age 23. Using short sentences, short paragraphs, and short articles, the new style of editing was aimed at attracting a large following among those who had learned to read as a result of the 1870 Education Act that made school compulsory for all British children. In 1894 Harmsworth bought the Evening News, and by combining his editing style with some of the methods of American yellow journalism, he quadrupled its circulation within a year. In 1896 came Harmsworth’s main innovation, the Daily Mail, which within three years was selling more than 500,000 copies a day. This was more than twice the figure reached by any competing paper up to that time. The Daily Mail went on to sell more than one million copies a day during the South African (Boer) War (1899–1902).

As “A Penny Paper for One Halfpenny” the Daily Mail was sold to the reader at a low price only made possible by the paper’s lucrative revenue from advertising. It was the first British paper to be based deliberately on advertising revenue rather than on sales revenue and the first to publish circulation figures audited independently by a chartered accountant. These figures gave advertisers evidence that the Daily Mail was reaching the public in sufficient numbers to warrant increasingly expensive advertising space. Another Mail slogan, “The Busy Man’s Daily Journal,” emphasized the snappy editorial style that followed the Harmsworth dictum of “Explain, simplify, clarify.” This approach guided the new type of journalists known as subeditors, whose job was to rewrite stories in the “house” style, to compose headlines, and, if necessary, to add a little seasoning to the original story.

Another Harmsworth innovation was the tabloid newspaper, which was to revolutionize the popular press in the 20th century. The term tabloid was coined by Harmsworth when he designed and edited an experimental issue of the New York World, produced for New Year’s Day, 1900. The tabloid halved the size of the newspaper page, which allowed easier handling by the reader, but it also suited the new, curtailed size of articles and the more numerous pages required per issue. In the long run, however, the term tabloid has come to define the popular newspaper more in style than in physical characteristics. The first successful tabloid was Harmsworth’s Daily Mirror (1903). Originally launched as a newspaper for “gentlewomen,” the Mirror had been a failure, but the tabloid format, together with a halfpenny cover price and numerous photographs, made the new picture paper an immediate success, with circulation running at more than one million copies by 1914. Lord Northcliffe sold the Mirror to his brother Lord Rothermere in 1913. Meanwhile, the equally successful tabloid Daily Sketch had been begun in Manchester in 1909 by Sir Edward Hulton.

Like the American press barons, Northcliffe constantly intervened in the production of his newspapers, sending orders under his preferred appellation of “Chief” to the editors not only of the Mail and the Mirror but also of The Times (from 1908) and the Observer (from 1905), both of which he owned until his death in 1922. His control over newspaper content was never more apparent than during World War I, when the British Official Press Bureau was set up to control the amount of war information available to the public through the newspapers. Though accepting that a certain degree of censorship was necessary to conceal military intelligence from the enemy, Northcliffe nevertheless boldly defied the bureau over its cover-up of an ammunition shortage. Such defiance confirmed the independence of the press from government, but the influence of proprietors was itself to become an important issue in press freedom. This was typified after World War I by the intensive campaign for Empire Free Trade in Lord Beaverbrook’s Daily Express. The preservation of the British Empire was the guiding passion of Max Aitken, who had been raised to the peerage as Lord Beaverbrook in 1917. A Canadian-born journalist who took the Express into second place in national circulation behind the Daily Mirror, Beaverbrook continued to thrust his viewpoint on the editors of his papers for many years, although his campaigns for free trade within the empire and, after World War II, commonwealth trade preference were unsuccessful. Through the Daily Express, the Sunday Express (started in 1918), and the London Evening Standard (acquired 1923), Beaverbrook’s opposition to Britain’s attempts to join the European Economic Community (EEC; later the European Community, which became the primary component of the European Union), was given a regular airing. Beaverbrook admitted to the first Royal Commission on the Press that if an editor took a divergent view on, for example, the empire, he would be “talked out of it.” So talented was Beaverbrook as a publisher and journalist that the Express newspapers gained and kept many readers for life, even though it is doubtful whether the issues of empire and EEC membership were of passionate concern to them.

The circulation “war of the tabs” that broke out in New York City in the 1920s was copied in Britain in the 1930s, bringing with it numerous circulation-boosting stunts. Prizes for readers had been introduced as early as the 1890s, when Harmsworth offered a pound sterling per week for life for the reader who could guess the value of gold in the Bank of England on a given day. In the 1920s one paper offered free insurance to subscribers, but this soon proved too costly to maintain. In 1930 the Daily Herald offered gifts to woo new readers. Although they were condemned by the Newspaper Proprietors’ Association (later known as the Newspaper Publishers Association), gift schemes proliferated among other newspapers, with the Herald eventually achieving a circulation of two million, the highest in the world. Many of the new readers were stolen from other papers—the Daily Mirror saw its figure drop from more than one million to 700,000 by 1934—but newspapers in general acquired 1.5 million new readers, so that by the end of the decade there was a national newspaper aimed at every socioeconomic class. The Daily Mirror was revived by its editor, Harry Bartholomew, to become a true working-class paper with a radical political voice, although the winning of new readers—circulation eventually topped four million—was mostly due to the shameless use of the techniques of yellow journalism.

The modern Era
After World War II, radical changes in newspaper production in particular and mass communication in general occurred on a par with those brought by the Industrial Revolution. Electronic and communications technology have continued to revolutionize the ways in which newspapers are written, edited, and printed, while radio, television, and the Internet have developed into serious competitors as sources of news, official information, and entertainment—and as vehicles for advertising.

Technological Developments
Computers and telecommunications transformed the production process for the modern newspaper. They also led to changes in the quality of the newspaper itself, but their real impact was on the finances of the newspaper industry and on the relevance of the traditional print workers. One of the first signs of technology’s potential for change came in the 1930s, when Walter Morey developed the Teletypesetter (first demonstrated in 1928). This machine was an improvement on the telegraph, which was widely used by reporters in the field and by the wire services, such as Reuters and Associated Press, to send news items in draft form to editorial offices miles away. With the Teletypesetter, the impulses sent over the wire included encoded instructions to Linotype machines. The machines could then decode the instructions and automatically prepare whole pages ready for printing. It was therefore envisaged that the reporter would have the facility for “direct input” into the printing room, which would eliminate the need for retyping by a Linotype operator and thus save newspapers both time and money.

But direct input had to await the development of sophisticated computers and computer programs, which did not materialize until after World War II. In 1946 the first techniques of photocomposition were developed. With this method of typesetting, the images of pages are prepared for the printer photographically, as on a photocopier, instead of in lines of metal type. The new method was introduced gradually in newspapers, where the Linotype machines had worked well enough for more than half a century and where union opposition to the new technology was deeply entrenched. Technological advances were accelerated in the 1970s, especially through the introduction of computers and computer programs that were tailor-made for the newspaper publisher. Many newspaper companies replaced their 19th-century printing systems with the new technology almost overnight.

In a modern newspaper office each journalist has a desktop terminal or computer—i.e., a keyboard and monitor connected to the main computer. The monitor shows the current article or, in the case of a copy editor, the whole of the page being composed from various articles and pictures. While writing, the reporter can retrieve information stored in the computer, such as any previous articles on the same subject, which can be displayed on the screen alongside the new copy. This split-screen technology also allows the copy editor to move copy around the screen on special page-layout terminals until the copy fits the page. Once it is ready, a push of a button sends the complete page to the main computer for eventual transformation into camera-ready composition. From there, a negative image of the page is captured on film and, depending on the type of press used, typically etched onto a printing plate.

By this direct-input process the production of a page of news is accelerated. But the new technology can serve other production purposes. On some papers it is possible for an advertiser to send copy via a facsimile machine, an Intranet system, or the Internet to the newspaper office, where a computer automatically finds a suitable space for it and transmits it to the copy editor’s screen. The reporter in the field, equipped with a portable terminal, can also input a story to the newspaper’s computer directly and can gain access to the computer’s library of information in the same way. If necessary, the editor can discuss the article with the reporter over the telephone or via e-mail (electronic mail) as they both look at it on their screens. Similarly, items from press agencies can be located instantly; these can be transmitted to the computer terminal via cables or over the air by satellite, enabling news to reach the other side of the world within minutes. The electronic transmission of whole pages of news between remote locations also means that the printing plant does not have to be situated near the editorial offices. This has decreased real estate or rental costs for many urban newspapers, and it has also made possible the printing of simultaneous editions of the same newspaper in different cities and even on different continents, an advantage first exploited by the British-based Financial Times and the U.S.-based Wall Street Journal.

Maturation of newspaper Markets
Despite the challenges presented by competing mass media such as radio, television, and Internet news sites, many newspapers, both large and small, have remained attractive to readers and have been run profitably.

The Emerge of National Newspapers
Television news broadcasts and magazines have long been directed toward national audiences, but only in the late 20th century did some newspapers, such as the Financial Times and The Wall Street Journal, begin to move beyond their metropolitan or regional markets, as electronic publishing technology fostered the growth of national daily newspapers. Once the technology became available to them, publishers sought ways to maximize the additional advertising revenue that could result from national distribution. In the United States, the The Wall Street Journal had long occupied the top spot as the country’s largest nationally circulated daily paper. In 1982 the Gannett Co., Inc. used emerging technology to launch a full-color national daily general-interest newspaper, USA Today, in the United States. By 2002 USA Today’s annual circulation topped two million, surpassing that of The Wall Street Journal. Defenders of the Journal noted, however, that it retained the largest subscription base among print and online subscribers, while a certain portion of USA Today’s circulation base was achieved by distributing free newspapers. In the United Kingdom, a short-lived newspaper akin to USA Today was launched in 1986 by publisher Eddie Shah. Entitled Today, it was the first national British paper produced entirely with the new technology and without cooperation from the traditional print unions. The paper was purchased in 1987 by Rupert Murdoch, who closed it in 1995. Before the end of the 20th century, USA Today and The Wall Street Journal were joined by a third national newspaper, The New York Times, which expanded its reach in 1998 by offering subscriptions in most U.S. cities. By the middle of the next decade, however, subscribers to its daily newspaper amounted to roughly half the number receiving either USA Today or The Wall Street Journal.

Newspapers have retained their importance as vehicles for advertising—including display ads as well as classified advertisements. Even after classified advertising became available on the Internet, local papers retained a significant share of classified ads, especially in the categories of job recruitment and real estate. In smaller and rural communities, regional and local papers have remained essential for small businesses wishing to advertise.

Although newspapers had traditionally counted on the income from subscriptions and newsstand purchases, it became increasingly evident that advertising was a newspaper’s primary source of profit. One of the main developments of the 1970s and ’80s was the spread of free newspapers (known in the United Kingdom as free sheets), which are delivered door-to-door or distributed in public places. Many free newspapers are printed by smaller newspaper enterprises and are entirely financed by advertising revenue. In the early 21st century, large metropolitan newspaper publishers began experimenting with free tabloid versions of their daily papers; their goal was to build brand recognition among younger readers who were less likely to purchase or subscribe to traditional newspapers. However, by promoting a sense that one need not pay for news, the free papers and free news websites joined radio and television in posing a threat to the existence of paid-subscription newspapers. Although The Wall Street Journal began charging for its online content in 1996, most newspaper publishers thought that free access to the online versions of their papers would yield strong advertising income and help build the subscription base for their print-edition papers. Even 10 years later, as publishers increasingly saw the need to charge for online access, The Wall Street Journal remained the only American newspaper not offering free viewing of some—if not most—of its daily news.

Contemporary Challenges
Besides working to retain their share of advertising, newspapers must compete for the attention of the consumer who can get the main points of the news from a variety of sources. Over the decades newspapers have done well to survive amid the proliferation of portable radios, radios in automobiles, cable and satellite-broadcast television channels, Internet news sites, and web logs. Readers may be attracted by the paper’s sports reporting, racing tips, editorials, cartoons, job advertisements, gossip columns, or, ironically, the daily listings of radio and television programming. The modern reader, in fact, is more likely to buy a newspaper to consult a special section than to read it from cover to cover.

Other mass media have nonetheless influenced the style and the substance of newspapers, especially as audiences seek entertainment in tandem with more straightforward news. One social change that newspapers have capitalized upon regards the increase in leisure time in developed countries. To accompany the growth of a diversity of leisure activities such as home improvement, gardening, and food and wine, newspapers have devoted special features to these activities, particularly in their weekend editions. Foreign travel has also become more common, creating a demand for informative articles on popular tourist destinations. Even the sports pages, an essential part of the modern newspaper, have been affected by the changing leisure patterns—there has been an increase in the number of sports of general interest, allowing the expansion of the sports section to cover less popular sports. The economic advantage of covering more leisure activities and interests comes from the ability of newspapers to attract advertising revenue from commercial suppliers of leisure goods and services. In expanding their coverage to include modern leisure interests, newspapers can be seen to reflect the society of which they are a part.

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